The endometrium is the lining of the uterus, and when cancer forms within this layer of cells it is termed endometrial cancer. This cancer affects only women.
Symptoms of endometrial cancer are similar to symptoms of other cancers of the female reproductive system, and may include pelvic pain, unexplained vaginal bleeding and discharge. Patients who have taken, or are taking Tamoxifen for the treatment of breast cancer need to stay particularly aware of their risk for developing endometrial cancer.
Also, women who are taking estrogen replacement therapy for any reason are more susceptible to the development of endometrial cancer as well.
This type of cancer is generally detected by an actual biopsy of the endometrium, or through a D&C procedure that can be used to gather the cells for biopsy.
Sometimes, endometrial cancer is affected by the introduction of progesterone. This can make the treatment process easier, and give the patient a better prognosis. Hysterectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure when the cancer is localized in the endometrium. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are also commonly used for treating this cancer.